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Gemstone Identification and Mohs Scale

This is a handy visual reference for identifying rocks, minerals and gemstones, as well as to look up their place on the Mohs scale.

The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a scale from 1 to 10 characterizing scratch resistance of various materials through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material. Diamonds are at the top of the scale at 10.

Listed below are various materials in alphabetical order, so you can look up the hardness of the material you're working with.

Note: This chart looks best in landscape mode on mobile.


Name Photo Mohs Scale
Actinolite
Actinolite
5.5 to 6
Agate
Agate
6.5 to 7
Alabaster
Alabaster
2 to 2.5
Alexandrite

8.5
Almandine
7.5
Amazonite
6 to 6.5
Amber
2 to 3
Amblygonite
6
Amethyst
7
Anatase
5.5 to 6
Andalusite
7.5
Andradite
7 to 7.5
Anhydrite
3 to 3.5
Apatite
5
Apophyllite
4.5 to 5
Aquamarine
7.5 to 8
Aragonite
3.5 to 4
Augelite
5
Aventurine
6 to 6.5
Axinite
6.5 to 7
Azurite
3.5 to 4
Barite
3
Barytocalcite
4
Benitoite
6 to 6.5
Beryl (Goshenite)
7.5 to 8
Beryllonite
5.5 to 6
Brazilianite
5.5
Bytownite
Bytownite
6
Calcite
Calcite
3
Cancrinite
5 to 6
Cassiterite
Cassiterite
6 to 7
Celestine
Celestine
3 to 3.5
Cerussite
Cerussite
3.5
Chalcedony
Chalcedony
6.5 to 7
Chalcopyrite Chalcopyrite 3.5 to 4
Chalybite (Siderite) Chalybite (Siderite) 3.5 to 4.5
Chromite Chromite 5.5
Chrysoberyl Chrysoberyl 8.5
Chrysocolla Chrysocolla 2 to 5.5
Chrysoprase Chrysoprase 6.5 to 7
Citrine Citrine 7
Colemanite Colemanite 4.5
Coral Coral 3 to 4
Cordierite Cordierite 7 to 7.5
Crocoite Crocoite 2.5 to 3
Cuprite Cuprite 3.5 to 4
Danburite Danburite

7 to 7.5

Datolite Datolite

5 to 5.5

Demantoid Demantoid 6.5 to 7
Diamond Diamond 10
Diopside Diopside 5 to 6
Dioptase Dioptase 5
Dolomite Dolomite 3.5 to 4.5
Dumortierite Dumortierite 7
Ekanite Ekanite 6 to 6.5
Elaeolite (Nepheline)
Elaeolite (Nepheline)
5.5 to 6
Emerald
Emerald
7.5 to 8
Enstatite Enstatite 5.5
Epidote Epidote 6 to 7
Euclase
Euclase
7.5
Feldspar
Feldspar
6 to 6.5
Fluorite Fluorite 4 to 4.5
Fossilized (Petrified) Wood Fossilized Wood 6.5 to 7
Gahnite Gahnite

7.5 to 8

Garnet Garnet

7 to 7.5

Garnierite Garnierite

2.5 to 3

Gaylussite Gaylussite

2.5

Glass Glass

5

Hambergite Hambergite

7.5

Hauynite Hauynite 5.5 to 6
Heliotrope Heliotrope 6.5 to 7
Hematite Hematite 5.5 to 6.5
Hemimorphite Hemimorphite 5
Hiddenite Hiddenite 6 to 7
Howlite Howlite 3.5
Hypersthene Hypersthene 5 to 6
Idocrase (Vesuvianite) Idocrase (Vesuvianite) 6.5
Ilmenite Ilmenite 5 to 6
Iolite Iolite 7 to 7.5
Ivory Ivory 2 to 4
Jadeite (Jade) Jadeite (Jade) 6.5 to 7
Jasper Jasper 6.5 to 7
Jet Jet 2.5 to 4
Kornerupine Kornerupine 6.5 to 7
Kunzite Kunzite 6 to 7
Kurnakovite Kurnakovite 4.5
Kyanite Kyanite 4.5 to 7
Labradorite Labradorite 6 to 6.5
Lapis Lazuli Lapis Lazuli 5 to 6
Lazulite Lazulite 5 to 6
Leucite Leucite 5.5
Magnesite Magnesite 4
Malachite Malachite 3.5 to 4
Meerschaum
(Sepiolite)
Meerschaum (Sepiolite) 2 to 2.5
Moldavite Moldavite 5.5
Moonstone Moonstone 6 to 6.5
Natrolite Natrolite 5.5
Nephrite Nephrite 6 to 6.5
Obsidian Obsidian 5 to 5.5
Opal Opal 5.5 to 6.5
Orthoclase Orthoclase 6 to 6.5
Painite Painite 7.5 to 8
Pearl Pearl 3 to 4
Periclase Periclase 5.5 to 6
Peridot Peridot 6.5 to 7
Petalite Petalite 6 to 6.5
Phenacite 7.5 to 8
Phosgenite Phosgenite 2.5 to 3
Prasiolite Prasiolite 7
Prehnite Prehnite

6 to 6.5

Proustite Proustite

2.5

Pseudophite No Photo Available 2.5
Psilomelane Psilomelane 5.5 to 6
Purpurite Purpurite

4.5

Pyrite Pyrite

6 to 6.5

Rhodochrosite Rhodochrosite 4
Rhodolite Rhodolite 7 to 7.5
Rhodonite Rhodonite 5.5 to 6.5
Rhodizite Rhodizite 8
Rock Crystal
(Clear Quartz)
Rock Crystal 7
Rose Quartz Rose Quartz 7
Ruby Ruby 9
Rutile Rutile 6 to 6.5
Sanidine Sanidine 6
Sapphire Sapphire 9
Sard No Photo Available

6.5 to 7

Saussurite No Photo Available

6.5

Scapolite Scapolite

5 to 6.5

Scheelite Scheelite 4.5 to 5
Serpentine Serpentine 2.5
Sillimanite Sillimanite 6 to 7.5
Sinhalite Sinhalite 6.5
Smaragdite Smaragdite 6.5
Smithsonite Smithsonite 5
Smokey Quartz Smokey Quartz 7
Sodalite Sodalite 5.5 to 6
Sphalerite Sphalerite 3.5 to 4
Sphene (Titanite) Sphene (Titanite) 5 to 5.5
Spinel Spinel 8
Staurolite Staurolite 7 to 7.5
Stichtite Stichtite 1.5 to 2.5
Strontianite Strontianite 3.5
Sulphur Sulphur 1.5 to 2
Taaffeite Taaffeite 8
Tantalite Tantalite 5 to 6
Tanzanite Tanzanite 6.5 to 7
Thomsonite Thomsonite 5 to 5.5
Thulite Thulite 6
Tiger's Eye Tiger's Eye 7
Topaz Topaz 8
Tourmaline Tourmaline 7 to 7.5
Tremolite Tremolite 5.5 to 6.5
Tugtupite Tugtupite 6
Turquoise Turquoise 5 to 6
Ulexite Ulexite 2
Uvarovite Uvarovite 7.5
Variscite Variscite 4 to 5
Vivianite Vivianite 1.5 to 3
Wardite Wardite 5
Willemite Willemite 5.5
Witherite Witherite 3.5
Wulfenite Wulfenite	3
YAG YAG 8
Zincite Zincite 4.5 to 5
Zircon Zircon 6.5 to 7.5
Zoisite Zoisite 6.5 to 7

 

Photo Credits

Actinolite, Almandine, Anatase, Andalusite, Andradite, Apatite, Aragonite, Axinite, Benitoite, Dolomite, Garnierite, Kunzite, Moonstone, Natrolite, Orthoclase, Prasiolite, Sanidine, Stichtite, Tanzanite, Tremolite and Wardite by Didier Descouens, licensed under  CC BY-SA 4.0

Agate by Doxymo, licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Alabaster by Lanzi, licensed under  GNU Free Documentation License

Alexandrite by David Weinberg for Alexandrite.net, licensed under GNU Free Documentation License

Amazonite by Tom Epaminondas & Eurico Zimbres, licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 br

Amber by Roland Fuhrmann, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Amblygonite by Luis Miguel Bugallo Sanchez, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Amethyst, Crocoite and Malachite by JJ Harrison (https://www.jjharrison.com.au/), licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Apophyllite, Aquamarine, Augelite, Brazilianite, Bytownite, Calcite, Cerussite, Chalcedony, Chalcopyrite, Chrysocolla, Cordierite, Danburite, Datolite, Demantoid, Diopside, Dioptase, Enstatite, Epidote, Euclase, Feldspar, Gaylussite, Hambergite, Hauynite, Hemimorphite, Vesuvianite, Kurnakovite, Ilmenite, Magnesite, Opal, Peridot, Prehnite, Proustite, Rhodizite, Rose Quartz, Ruby, Rutile, Scheelite, Sillimanite, Sinhalite, Smithsonite, Smokey Quartz, Sphalerite, Spinel, Staurolite, Strontianite, Taaffeite, Thomasonite, Topaz, Turquoise, Ulexite, Witherite, Wulfenite, Zircon and Zoisite © Rob Lavinsky, iRocks.com, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 or by written permission.

Aventurine by Doobuzz, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Azurite and Rhodochrosite by Eric Hunt, licensed under CC BY-SA 2.5

 

Barite, Cassiterite, Fluorite, Pyrite and Vivianite by CarlesMillan, licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Beryl (Goshenite), Dumortierite, Hiddenite, Labradorite, Lazulite, Tugtupite and Uvarovite by Parent Géry, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Celestine and Scapolite by H Zell, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Chalybite (Siderite) by DerHexer, licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Chrysoberyl by Matteo Chinellato http://www.mindat.org/photo-282796.html, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Chrysoprase by Xth-Floor, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Ekanite © The Gem Trader, www.thegemtrader.com, used with permission.

Garnet by Moha112100, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Heliotrope, Purpurite and Sodalite by Ra'ike, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Howlite by Ronnie Van Dommelen, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Hypersthene, Meerschaum and Psilomelane by Mineraly.sk, licensed under  CC BY 2.0

Iolite by Vzb83~commonswiki, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Ivory by E235, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Jasper by James St. John, licensed under CC BY 2.0

Jet by Geni, licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Kornerupine by John Sobolewski http://www.mindat.org/photo-162065.html, licensed under CC BY 3.0

Kyanite by Aelwyn, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Lapis Lazuli by Hans Grobe, licensed under CC BY-SA 2.5

Moldavite by Onohej Zlatove, licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Nephrite by Piotr Sosnowski, licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Obsidian by Ji-Elle, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Periclase by Thomas Witzke http://tw.strahlen.org/fotoatlas1/periclase_foto.html, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 de

Petalite by Eurico Zimbres, licensed under CC BY-SA 2.5

Phenacite by Cape Minerals, licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Phosgenite by Captmondo, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Sapphire and Serpentine by Kluka, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Sphene (Titanite) by Fred Kruijen, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 nl

Thulite by Dave Dyet www.dyet.com, http://www.sxc.hu/photo/304111

Tiger's Eye by Marek Novotnak, licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Yag by RusGems https://rusgems.com/production/yttrium-aluminium-garnet/

Zincite by Cobalt123 - https://www.flickr.com/photos/cobalt/91712256/in/set-72157600434321810/, licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Any photos with no attribution are in the public domain.

 

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